KNOWLEDGE OF HIS PASSING AWAY: Huzoor (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was very well aware of the time of his passing away. He had also informed the people of this, on various occasions. After Hajjatul Widaa, the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said farewell to the people by saying, It may be possible that I may not make Hajj with you again. Words to the same effect were even mentioned during Gahdeer-e-Khum, whereas in both the sermons, he used the word It may be possible, to put a veil over his words, even though he knew very well of his passing away. Hazrat Uqba bin Aamir (radi Allahu anhu) says that once the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) departed from his home and went to the graves of the martyrs of Uhad and he prayed Namaaz at their graves like you would pray over a deceased. Then, he returned and climbed on to the Mimbar and said, I am to pass away before you and I am your witness and By Allah, I am seeing my Hauz even now.[Bukhari vol.2. pg.975]
BEGINNING OF HIS ILLNESS (IN THE EYES OF THE WORLD) : When the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) took ill, the length of the illness differs in narrations. However, on the 20th or 22nd of Safar, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) went to the Graveyard of Baqi during half the night. When he returned, he (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was not very comfortable.
DATE OF PASSING AWAY : The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), The illustrious Habeeb of Allah, The Mercy unto the Worlds, The Soul of the Universe, The Beloved of Bibi Amina, The Coolness of the eyes of Hazrat Abdullah, The Beloved Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) passed from this world on Monday, the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal, 11 Hijri, (June 632) at mid day, in the home of Bibi Aisha (radi Allahu anha).
KAFFAN AND BEING LAID TO REST IN THE RAUZA-E-ANWAR: The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had already said that his Kaffan and lowering him in the grave should be done by his Ahle Bait and other family members. It is for this reason that this was done as per the command of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
Hazrat Fadhal bin Abbas, Hazrat Quthm bin Abbas, Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Abbas and Hazrat Usama bin Zaid (ridwaanullahi ta aala alaihim ajmaeen) gave ghusl to the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Hazrat Ali (radi Allahu anhu) in true love and spiritual ecstasy took the ghusl water that remained on the navel and on the eyelids of Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) with his tongue. After the ghusl, the Kaffan was made up of three pieces of cotton material.
NAMAAZ-E-JANAZAH : When the Janazah of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was ready, then people came in groups and read the Janazah Salaah. Because the Janazah was inside the Hujrah Mubaarak, only few people at a time entered and read the Janazah Salaah and left, then others followed, but there was no Imam. [Madarijun Nabuiwat]
Explaining the Janazah Salaah of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in detail, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan (radi Allahu anhu) states as follows in the fourth volume of his world renowned encyclopaedia Fatawa-e-Razviyah: The Ulama have differences on the issue of the Janazah Salaah of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). OneJamaat says that the Janazah Namaaz did not really occur. Small groups came in and sent Durood and Salaams and then left, followed by others. Certain Hadith also show this. You may peruse my book on this issue.
There are also various Ulama who accept this Namaaz Ma'roof. Imam Qaazi Iyaaz (radi Allahu anhu) rectified this. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (radi Allahu anhu) was engrossed in giving hope to the Muslims and taking care of the needs of the Ummah. At this time, the allegiance had not been taken on his hands. People came in huge and small groups and continued to pray the Janazah Salaah of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).When the Allegiance was taken on the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (radi Allahu anhu), then and his Guardianship was confirmed, He prayed the Janazah Salaah, and after him non other prayed, as mentioned by Imam Shamsul Ulama Sarkhasi (radi Allahu anhu). It is in Bazaaz, Haakim, Ibn Saad, Ibn Mani, Baihiqi, Tibraani and Mujim Ausat on the authority of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Masood (radi Allahu anhu) that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, After giving me ghusl and kaffan, leave me on the bier and go outside. Jibraeel (alaihis salaam) will first read Namaaz over me, followed by Mikaeel (alaihis salaam), followed by Israfeel (alaihis salaam), then The Angel of death will pray over me with his entire army. You should them come to me in groups and read Durood and Salaam. [FatawaRazvia vol.4. pg 54 – New Edition of Fatawa Razvia Vol.9 pg.286]
HIS BLESSED RAUZA-E-ANWAR: Hazrat Abu Talha (radi Allahu anhu) prepared the blessed Grave of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Fadhl bin Abbas and Hazrat Quthm bin Abbas (ridwaanullahi ta aala alaihim ajmaeen)lowered the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) into his Rauza-e-Anwar. It is evident from the narration of Abu Dawood, that Hazrat Usama (radi Allahu anhu) and Hazrat Abdur Rahmaan bin Auf (radi Allahu anhu) also went into the Blessed Grave.
Hazrat Quthm (radi Allahu anhu) was the last to leave the Qabr-e-Anwar. He says, I looked at the blessed face of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) for the last time and then saw that his blessed lips were moving. I place my ears close and heard him say, Rabbi Habli Ummati (O Allah, Give my Ummah to me). [Madarijun Nabuiwat Vol.2 Pg. 442 – Abu Dawood vol.2 pg.458]